Facts About. Spiny threecorner-Jack is native to Mediterranean Africa, but has made its way around the world. It has a patchy distribution in the U.S. and is. Emex spinosa (spiny emex, devil’s-thorn) is an annual (family Polygonaceae) found on California’s south coast. This Mediterranean native is not yet common in . Emex Campd. Environment. terrestrial. Original description. Not documented. Taxonomic citation. WoRMS (). Emex spinosa. Accessed at.
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Native to North America? The spines are slightly reflexed spinosw that they can also hook onto passing objects and the erect habit of the plant would encourage dissemination by this method.
Under laboratory conditions, B. Doublegee decline and the dock aphid. Docks and Knotweeds of the British Isles.
It originates in the warmer parts of the old worldbut now has spread with man to other places. Zohary describes two varieties of E.
In areas where E. In Hawaii, prior to the use of biological control, heavy infestations where hoes were inadequate were ploughed and then Kikuyu grass Pennisetum clandestinum planted to suppress the weed Fullaway, ; Nakao, The male flowers, together with the occasional perfect flower, form in short axillary racemes, often emerging between the female achenes Zohary, Bibliography of the weeds, Emex australis and Emex spinosa.
Botanical Society of the British Isles. United Spinowa Department of Agriculture Handbook, Grazing land problems, Molokai Island, Territory of Hawaii.
Legal and economic constraints on Emex. It has a patchy distribution in the U. Australian Seeds Research Conference, 2 a We depend on donations to help keep this site free and up to date for you. Journal of Agriculture, Western Australia, Weed Research, 17 5: These findings are consistent with the facts that on a global scale, E. Taxonomic Tree Top of page Domain: It gets its colorful name from its fruits, which have three spines that project out at the corners.
Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rainfall Regime Top of page Bimodal Winter. Bracteole number Apiaceae 0 Bracts in plantain Plantago NA Final leaf segment length compound lvs only 0 mm Final leaf segment length to width ratio compound lvs only 0 Hairs on underside of leaf the underside of the leaf is not hairy, or it has very few hairs Leaf arrangement alternate: Upland Kenya wild spinoxa. Host range of Brachycaudus rumexicolens Patchand aphid associated with the Polygonaceae.
Parsons lists products that are registered for use on E. Interspecific hybridization between Emex australis and E.
The achenes readily adhere to objects such as shoes and the tyres of vehicles such as cars, aircraft and machinery. Non-dormant seeds germinate rapidly in response to moisture and their comparatively large energy reserves allow them to rapidly establish a deep taproot and to themselves produce subterranean seed thus giving the species a high degree of drought proofing.
Furthermore, the authors found that at low soil nitrogen levels, both Emex spp. Weed control in transplanted “Iceberg” lettuce.
Biological Control, 13 3: Biological control of weeds. All these characteristics are highly dependent on environmental conditions Weiss and Simmons, In Mediterranean countries where it is native, distribution is restricted to coastal areas, islands and river banks Kosinova, ; Jalas and Suominen, The long-term viability of the seeds, with their staggered emergence so that only one or two progeny from the same mother plant germinate in spijosa particular year, safeguards against the occasional season that is unsuitable for reproduction even in previously proven habitats.
John Wiley and Sons Inc.
In the Omayed Biosphere Reserve, Egypt, it occurs within coastal sand dunes, salt marshes, non-saline depressions, inland ridges, inland plateaux and on rain-fed farms in the area but not in saline depressions Shaltout, Due to the more erect morphology of E.
On each of the three flat faces are four pits Siddiqi, There have been no studies of natural enemies in the introduced range.
When viewed from the side with the pedicle pointing towards the ground, the mature aerial achene in E. Growth form the plant is an herb it has self-supporting stems Lifespan the plant lives only a single year or less Parasitism the plant is not parasitic Plant color the leaves or young stems of the plant are green Spines on plant the plant has no spines Underground organs there is a thickened taproot on the plant.
Melbourne, Australia; Inkata Press.